Science for Education Today, 2019, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 36–55

Subjective factors of gifted adolescents’ psychological well-being: A theoretical model

Miklyaeva A. V. 1 (Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation), Khoroshikh V. V. 1 (Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation), Volkova E. N. 1 (Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation)
1 Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia

Introduction. The problem of the research is determined by contradictory data on psychological well-being of gifted adolescents presented in Russian and international psychological studies. The aim of this article is to identify the subjective factors which mediate psychological well-being of gifted adolescents.
Materials and Methods. The study uses methods of analytical literature review and theoretical modeling. The theoretical and methodological bases of the research include the process-activity approach to understanding giftedness, as well as C. Ryff’s concept of psychological well-being and self-determination theory of R. Ryan and E. Deci.
Results. The study reveals the following main subjective factors of gifted adolescents’ psychological well-being: subjectivity, persistence, self-efficacy, problem orientation, dominant emotional background, and characteristics of Self-concept. The element which moderates the relationship between the above listed factors and gifted adolescents’ psychological well-being is their attitude toward their own giftedness. Gender, age, type of giftedness and type of educational environment are identified as the main conditions determining the specifics of gifted adolescents’ development and affecting their psychological well-being. On this basis, the authors have proposed a theoretical model. The model of subjective factors of gifted adolescents’ psychological well-being can be used to determine the most important areas of research on psychological well-being of gifted adolescents, to operationalize private research models in "psychology of adolescent giftedness", to compare the results of various empirical studies aimed at revealing the relationship between giftedness and psychological well-being in adolescence.
Conclusions. Thus, the study has identified the main subjective factors which mediate psychological well-being of gifted adolescents.


Psychological well-being; Giftedness; Adolescents; Attitude toward their giftedness; Persistence; Subjectivity; Self-efficacy; Problem experiences; Self-concept; Emotional state

The development of engineering students’ foreign language discursive competence: Motivational educational factors

For citation:
Miklyaeva A. V., Khoroshikh V. V., Volkova E. N. Subjective factors of gifted adolescents’ psychological well-being: A theoretical model. Science for Education Today, 2019, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 36–55. DOI:
  1. Archakova T. O., Veraksa A. N., Zotova O. Yu., Perelygina E. B.  Subjective well-being in children: Measurement tools and age dynamics. Psychological Science and Education, 2017, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 68–76. (In Russian) DOI: URL:
  2. Bulynko N. A. The influence of self-efficiency of a personality on the effectiveness of sports activity. Bulletin of the Yanka Kupala Grodno State University. Series 3: Philology. Pedagogy. Psychology, 2014, no. 3, pp. 118–125. URL:
  3. Gordeeva T. O., Shepeleva E. A. Gender differences in academic and social self-efficacy and coping strategies in modern Russian adolescents. Moscow University Bulletin. Series 14: Psychology, 2006, no. 3, pp. 78–85. (In Russian) URL:
  4. Grishina A. V., Volkova E. N. Structure of subjectivity of adolescents with different degree of computer games addiction. Bulletin of Minin University, 2018, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 14. (In Russian) DOI: URL:
  5. Zhukovskaya L. V., Troshikhina E. G. K. Ryff's scale of psychological well-being. Psychological Journal, 2011, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 82–93. (In Russian) URL:
  6. Klimontova T. A. Personality Self-Attitude of Intellectually Gifted High School Students. Proceedings of Irkutsk State Technical University, 2015, no. 1, pp. 247–251. (In Russian) URL:
  7. Pechenkina A. P., Golovei L. A. Self-attitude of gifted adolescents in connection with the peculiarities of the motivational sphere. Scientific Studies of Graduates of the Faculty of Psychology of St. Petersburg State University, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 217–221. URL:
  8. Podolskij A.I., Karabanova O.A., Idobaeva O.A., Heymans P. Psychoemotional wellbeing of contemporary adolescents: International study experience. Moscow University Psychology Bulletin, 2011, no. 2, pp. 9–20.  (In Russian) URL: 
  9. Regush L. A., Alekseeva E. V., Orlova A. V., Pezhemskaya Yu. S., Undusk E. N. Psychological problems of Russian adolescents (1993-2013): monograph. Saint-Petersburg, Elvi-print Publ., 2017, 297 p.  (In Russian) URL:
  10. Ryseva A. A. Self-awareness of the personality and its features among intellectually gifted adolescents. News of the Russian State Pedagogical University. A. I. Herzen, 2007, vol. 17, no. 43-2, pp. 203–207. (In Russian) URL: 
  11. Semenova A. A. The specific nature of self-attitude of intellectually gifted pupils and its interconnection with the components of person’s self-consciousness. Pedagogical Education in Russia, 2016, no. 3, pp. 138–144. (In Russian) URL:
  12. Scheblanova E. I. Intellectual self-concept of gifted adolescents. Theoretical and Experimental Psychology, 2016, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 23–38. (In Russian) URL:
  13. Shcheblanova E. I., Tsoi A. B. Social and psychological adjustment of gifted students with different kinds of intellectual abilities. Psychological Research, 2013, vol. 6, no. 31, pp. 7. (In Russian) URL:
  14. Ablard K. E. Self-perceptions and needs as a function of type of academic ability and gender. Roeper Review, 1997, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 110–115. DOI:
  15. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 1977, vol. 84 (2), pp. 191–215. DOI:
  16. Barendregt C. S., van der Laan A. M., Bongers I. L., van Nieuwenhuizen C. Longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem: Testing differences for adolescents admitted to secure residential care and after discharge. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2016, vol. 60, issue 16, pp. 1836–1855. DOI:
  17. Baudson T. G., Zeimes J. F.  The Importance of being gifted: Stages of gifted identity development, their correlates and predictors. Gifted and Talented International, 2016, vol. 31, issue 1, pp. 19–32. DOI:
  18. Bergold S., Wirthwein L., Rost D. H., Steinmayr R. Are gifted adolescents more satisfied with their lives than their non-gifted peers?. Frontiers in Psychology, 2015, vol. 6, pp. 1623. DOI:
  19. Boazman J., Sayler  M. Personal well-being of gifted students following participation in an early college-entrance program.  Roeper Review, 2011, vol. 33, issue 2, pp. 76–85.  DOI:
  20. Bowers E. P.,  Li Y., Kiely M. K.,  Brittian A.,  Lerner J. V., Lerner R. M.  The five Cs model of positive youth development: A longitudinal analysis of confirmatory factor structure and measurement invariance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2010, vol. 39, issue 7, pp. 720–735. DOI:
  21. Brounstein P. J., Holahan W., Dreyden J.  Change in self-concept and attributional styles among academically gifted adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1991, vol. 21, issue 3, pp.  198–218.  DOI:
  22. Chan D. W. Positive and negative perfectionism among Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong: Their relationships to general self-efficacy and subjective well-being. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2007, vol. 31, issue 1, pp. 77–102. DOI:
  23. Chen X.Fan X.Cheung H. Y., Wu J. The subjective well-being of academically gifted students in the Chinese cultural context. School Psychology International, 2018, vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 291–311. DOI:
  24.  De Caroli M. Е., Sagone Е. Generalized self-efficacy and well-being in adolescents with high vs. low scholastic self-efficacy. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2014, vol. 141, pp. 867–874. DOI:
  25. Demirbas-Çelik N. Mental well-being predictivity of personal meaning profile in various age groups. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2018, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 198–206. DOI:
  26. Diener E. Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 1984, vol. 95 (3), pp. 542–575. DOI:
  27. Fouladchanga M., Kohgardb A., Salah V. A study of psychological health among students of gifted and nongifted high schools. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2010, vol. 5, pp. 1220–1225. DOI:
  28. Freer E., Evans P. Psychological needs satisfaction and value in students’ intentions to study music in high school. Psychology of Music, 2018, vol. 46, issue 6, pp. 881–895. DOI: 
  29. Góngora V. C., Solano A. C. Well-being and life satisfaction in Argentinean adolescents. Journal of Youth Studies, 2014, vol. 17, issue 9, pp. 1277–1291. DOI:
  30. Jones T. W. Equally cursed and blessed: Do gifted and talented children experience poorer mental health and psychological well-being?. Educational & Child Psychology, 2013,  vol. 30 (2), pp. 44–66. URL:
  31. Keyes C. L. M., Shmotkin D., Ryff C. D.  Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, vol. 82 (6), pp. 1007–1022. DOI:
  32. Kroesbergen E. H., van Hooijdonk M., Van Viersen S., Middel-Lalleman M. M. N., Reijnders J. J. W. The psychological well-being of early identified gifted children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 2016, vol. 60, issue 1, pp. 16–30. DOI:  
  33. Krok D. When is meaning in life most beneficial to young people? Styles of meaning in life and well-being among late adolescents. Journal of Adult Development, 2018, vol. 25, issue 2, pp. 96–106. DOI:
  34. Lea-Wood S. S., Clunies-Ross G. Self-esteem of gifted adolescent girls in Australian Schools. Roeper Review, 1995, vol. 17, issue 3, pp. 195–197. DOI:
  35. Li T., Feng F.  Goal content, well-being, and psychological needs satisfaction in Chinese adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 2018, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 541–550.  DOI:
  36. Lindwall M., Weman-Josefsson  K., Sebire S. J., Standage M. Viewing exercise goal content through a person-oriented lens: A self-determination perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2016, vol. 27, pp. 85–92. DOI:
  37. Litster K., Roberts J.  The self-concepts and perceived competencies of gifted and non-gifted students: a meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Special Educational Need, 2011, vol. 11, issue 2, pp. 130–140. DOI:
  38. Maddi S. R. Hardiness: An operationalization of existential courage. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2004, vol. 44, issue 3, pp. 279–298. DOI:
  39. Malinauskas R., Dumciene A. Psychological wellbeing and self-esteem in students across the transition between secondary school and university: A longitudinal study. Psihologija, 2017, vol.  50, issue 1, pp. 21–36. DOI:
  40. Martin L. T., Burns R. M., Schonlau M. Mental disorders among gifted and nongifted youth: A selected review of the epidemiologic literature. Gifted Child Quarterly, 2010, vol. 54, issue 1, pp. 31–41. DOI:
  41. Neihart M.  The impact of giftedness on psychological well-being: What does the empirical literature say?. Roeper Review, 1999, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 10–17. DOI:
  42. Ogurlu U., Yalin H. S., Yavuz Birben F. The relationship between psychological symptoms, creativity, and loneliness in gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2018, vol. 41, issue 2, pp. 193–210. DOI: 
  43. Pollet E., Schnell T.  Brilliant: But what for? Meaning and subjective well-being in the lives of intellectually gifted and academically high-achieving adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2017, vol. 18, issue 5, pp. 1459–1484.  DOI:
  44. Ryan R. M., Deci E. L. On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 2001, vol. 52, pp. 141–166. DOI:
  45. Ryan R. M., Huta V., Deci E. L. Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on Eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2008, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 139–170.DOI:
  46. Renshaw T. L., Arslan G.  Psychometric properties of the student subjective wellbeing questionnaire with Turkish adolescents: A generalizability study. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 2016, vol. 31, issue 2, pp. 139–151. DOI:
  47. Rinn A. N., Jamieson K. M., Gross C. M., McQueen K. S.  A canonical correlation analysis of the influence of social comparison, gender, and grade level on the multidimensional self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Social Psychology of Education, 2009, vol. 12, issue 2, pp. 251–269. DOI:
  48. Ritchie  L., Williamon А. Measuring distinct types of musical self-efficacy. Psychology of Music, 2011, vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 328–344. DOI:
  49. Ryff C. D. Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of Eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2014, vol. 83, pp. 10–28. DOI:
  50. Shek D. T. L., Lu-Yin L. Psychosocial factors influencing individual well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong: A six-year longitudinal study. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 2018, vol. 13, issue 3, pp. 561–584. DOI:  
  51. Snyder К. Е., Barger M. M., Wormington S. V., Schwartz-Bloom R., Linnenbrink-Garcia L. Identification as gifted and implicit beliefs about intelligence: An examination of potential moderators. Journal of advanced academics, 2013, vol. 24, issue 4, pp. 242–258. DOI:
  52. Sortheix F. M.,  Schwartz S. H.  Values that underlie and undermine well-being: Variability across countries. European Journal of Personality, 2017, vol. 31, issue 2, pp. 187–201. DOI:
  53. Tatli C. Investigating of the subjective well-being of gifted adolescents. New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. 56–63. DOI:
  54. Tong J., Yewchuk C. Self concept and sex-role orientation in gifted high school students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 1996, vol. 40, issue 1, pp. 15–23. DOI:
  55. Tvorogova N. D. Psychological support of gifted students’ learning activity. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 2018, vol. XLIII, pp. 147–155. DOI:
  56. Viejo C., Gomez-Lopez M., Ortega-Ruiz R. Adolescents' psychological well-being: A multidimensional measure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, vol. 15 (10), pp. 2325. DOI:
  57. Yang Y., Li P., Kou Y. Orientations to happiness and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 2017, Vol. 10, issue 4, pp. 881–897. DOI:
  58. Zeidner M., Shani-Zinovich I.  Do academically gifted and nongifted students differ on the Big-Five and adaptive status? Some recent data and conclusions. Personality and Individual Differences, 2011, vol. 51, issue 5, pp. 566–570. DOI:
  59. Zimmerman B. J.  Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2000, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 82–91. DOI:


Date of the publication 31.08.2019