Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2018, No.3, pp.167-180

Peculiarities of dynamics of variability indexes of heart rhythm of schoolchildren 1-2 classes at cyclic organization of lessons of physical culture

Yachmenev N. V. 1 (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation), Rubanovich V. B. 2 (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation)
1 "Nasha Shkola"
2 Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University

Introduction. Research investigations aimed at increasing the effectiveness of physical education, studying the process of schoolchildren’s adaptation in the dynamics of the academic year, depending on the planning and teaching of physical education lessons, are now a topical scientific area in the field of physiology. The purpose of this research was to study the peculiarities of the dynamics of heart rate variability in schoolchildren of the 1st and 2nd grades during the school year during the cyclic and traditional planning and teaching of physical education lessons.
Materials and Methods. The authors studied the parameters of heart rate variability in first and second-grade schoolchildren relying on background and orthostatic tests. The participants were divided into experimental group (n=18) and comparison group (n=35). In the experimental group (EG), the annual training load of physical education lessons was redistributed into 4 cycles and intercyclical periods of 4–5 weeks each with an increase of up to 5 lessons per week during the cycles and their decrease in intercyclical periods to 2 lessons per week. Schoolchildren of the comparison group (CG) were engaged in physical training for 1 hour 3 times a week.
Results. The experimental group showed a reliable increase in all the studied parameters of temporal analysis of the heart rate, the total power of the spectrum and the high-frequency component, a decrease in the vagosympathetic balance, the amplitude of the mode, the index of vegetative equilibrium, the stress index and the increase in the variation range. The obtained data indicate an increase in the influence of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the heart, a decrease in the centralization of control processes and the degree of tension of the mechanisms of regulation by the heart rhythm, an increase in the adaptive capacity of the organism. In the comparison group, the opposite dynamics of the studied parameters was observed, which indicates an intensification of the influence of the sympathetic and humoral-metabolic components in the regulation of the heart, the tension of the adaptive potential at the end of the school year.
Conclusions. The obtained results make it possible to recommend a cyclic planning and teaching of physical education lessons with the aim of increasing their health-enhancing effect in the conditions of a general educational setting.


Physical education of schoolchildren; Cyclic organization; Heart rate variability; Adaptive capabilities of the organism

  1. Aizman R. I., Golovin M. S. The Impact of a Single and Continuous Audiovisual Stimulation on Heart Rate Variability and Mechanisms of Autonomic Regulation in Athletes-Cyclics. Bulletin of Siberian Medicine, 2014, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 113–120. (In Russian) URL:
  2. Alexandrov A. A., Zvezdina I. V., Kotova M. B., Berezina N. O., Ivanova E. I., Vaganov A. D. Assessment of schoolchildren health in Murmansk. Pediatria. Journal named after G. N. Speransky, 2015, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 170–175. (In Russian) URL:
  3. Baevsky R. M., Berseneva A. P. Introduction to donosological diagnosis. Monograph. Moscow, The Word Publ., 2008, 176 p. (In Russian) URL:
  4. Baranov A. A., Namazova-Baranova L. S., Il’in A. G. Maintenance and Health Promotion of Adolescent - Pledge of Sustainable Development of Society and State (Current Status of the Issue). Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk = Annals of the Russian academy of medical sciences, 2014, vol. 69, no. 5-6, pp. 65–70. (In Russian) URL:
  5. Beloedov A. V., Khudyakov G. G., Ryzhkov R. E. An Integrated Approach to the Provision of Physical Exercises With a Health Focus. Fundamental research, 2014, no. 9-10, pp. 2186–2190. (In Russian) URL:
  6. Bogomolova E. S., Kuzmichev Yu. G., Kotova N. V., Kiseleva A. S., Badeeva T. V., Ashina M. V., Platonova T. V. The dynamics of the health condition of urban schoolchildren (1980–2012). Medical Almanac, 2014, no. 2, pp. 88–91. (In Russian) URL:
  7. Goncharova L. N., Yurenev A. P., Alnaser M. Integral Approaches To Teaching Seniour Schoolchildren and Their Impact on Development of a Healthy Lifestyle. Integratsiya obrazovaniya = Integration of Education, 2016, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 529–541. (In Russian) DOI:
  8. Dogadkin S. B. Age dynamics of temporal and spectral indices of cardiac rhythm variability in children 5–9 years. New research, 2012, no. 4, pp. 40–48. (In Russian) URL:
  9. Krivolapchuk I. A., Chernova M. B., Polyanskaya N. V. Factorial structure of physical performance in children aged of 7–8 years. Hygiene and Sanitation, 2016, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 636–642. (In Russian) URL:
  10. Kurchanova E. I., Efimova S. V., Ignatenkov N. E., Chernysheva E. N., Lvova L. G. Innovative approaches to children physical culture organization based on Waldorf games of mobile nature. Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P. F. Lesgafta, 2013, no. 2, pp. 83–88. (In Russian) URL:
  11.  Liseikina O. V., Popov I. V., Magomedov R. R. System Approach to Monitoring of the Pupils’ Physical Condition. The Bulletin of Adyghe State University. Series 3: Pedagogy and Psychology, 2015, no. 2, pp. 158–166. (In Russian) URL:
  12.  Lukina S. F., Chub I. S., Nefedova K. O. Heart Rate During Cognitive Activity of 8–10-year-old Children with Different Somatotypes. Vestnik of Northern (Arctic) Federal University. Series “Medical and Biological Sciences”, 2015, no. 1, pp. 24–30. (In Russian) URL:
  13. Makunina O. A., Jakubovskaya A. I. Structure and dynamics of the health of schoolchildren 7–17 years. On-line Scientific & Educational Bulletin. Health & education millennium, 2015, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 29–31. (In Russian) URL:
  14. Mikhailov V. M. The variability of the rhythm of the heart: the experience of practical application of the method. Monograph. Ivanovo, Ivanov State Medical Academy Publ., 2002, 290 p. (In Russian) URL:
  15. Naidanov B. N., Tsinker V. M. Increase of Quality of Schoolchildren Physical Education. Bulletin of the Buryat State University, 2014, no. 13-1, pp. 144–148. (In Russian) URL:
  16. Plotnikova I. I., Galimov G. Y., Kudryavtsev M. D., Mikhaleva E. A., Bortnikova T. M. Developing Education of Schoolchildren to Play Football at the Lessons of Physical Culture. Bulletin of the Buryat State University, 2013, no. 13, pp. 109–113. (In Russian) URL:
  17. Revyakina V. I. Health Approach to the Organization of Physical Training in Schools. Tomsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2014, no. 1, pp. 127–130. (In Russian) URL:
  18. Samokih I. I., Bosenko A. I., Diskolenko S. I., Shanditseva P. M. Evel of Physical Development of Girls 10–11 years in the Physical Training Aimed at Developing Endurance. Izvestiya Tula State University. Physical Culture. Sport, 2015, no. 2, pp. 22–28. (In Russian) URL:
  19. Sklyarov D. A., Sklyarov A. V., Munchaev K. M. Differentiated development of physical qualities in younger schoolchildren. Proceedings of Dagestan State Pedagogical University, 2015, no. 4, pp. 81–85. (In Russian) URL:
  20. Spirin V. K., Boldyshev D. N. Sportization of physical education lessons as a leading condition for implementation of health forming function of domestic physical culture education. Physical Culture: Upbringing, Education, Training, 2015, no. 2, pp. 49–52. (In Russian) URL:
  21. Firsin S. A. Innovative Contemporary Forms and Methods of Physical Education. International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research, 2013, no. 12, pp. 132–136. (In Russian) URL:
  22. Yachmenev N. V., Rubanovich V. B. Variations of functionality, cardiorespiratory system and physical work capacity rates depending on physical education process design for 1–11-graders. Theory and Practice of Physical Culture, 2016, no. 11, pp. 101–104. (In Russian) URL:
  23. Yachmenev N. V., Rubanovich V. B. Monitoring of the physical health of schoolchildren depending on the organization of physical education lessons. Natural Sciences. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Research, 2016, no. 3, pp. 78–85. (In Russian) URL:
  24. Folleto J. C., Pereira K. R., Valentini N. C. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior. International Journal of Yoga, 2016, vol. 9, issue 2, pp. 156–162. DOI:
  25. Fröberg A., Raustorp A., Pagels P., Larsson C., Boldemann C. Levels of physical activity during physical education lessons in Sweden. Acta Paediatrica, 2017, vol. 106, issue 1, pp. 135–141. PMID: 27537369 DOI: 10.1111/apa.13551 URL:
  26. Guerra S., Santos P., Ribeiro J. C., Duarte J. A., Mota J., Sallis J. F. Assessment of children’s and adolescents’ physical activity levels. European Physical Education Review, 2003, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 75–85. DOI:
  27. Kenney E. L., Gortmaker S. L. United States Adolescents' Television, Computer, Videogame, Smartphone, and Tablet Use: Associations with Sugary Drinks, Sleep, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Journal of Pediatrics, 2017, vol. 182, pp. 144–149. DOI:
  28. Kudláček M., Frömel K., Jakubec L., Groffik D. Compensation for Adolescents’ School Mental Load by Physical Activity on Weekend Days. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health, 2016, vol. 13, issue 3, pp. 308. DOI:
  29. Molina-Garscía J., Queralt A., Estevan I., Sallis J. F. Ecological correlates of Spanish adolescents’ physical activity during physical education classes. European Physical Education Review, 2016, vol. 22, issue 4, pp. 479–489. DOI:
  30. Passmore E., Donato-Hunt C., Maher L., Havrlant R., Hennessey K., Milat A., Farrell L. Evaluation of a pilot school-based physical activity challenge for primary students. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2017, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 103–109. DOI:
  31. Regis M. F., Oliveira L. M. F. T. de, Santos A. R. M. dos, Leonidio A. da C. R., Diniz P. R. B., Freitas C. M. S. M. de Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior. Einstein (San Paulo), 2016, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 461–467. DOI:
  32. Polo-Oteyza E., Ancira-Moreno M., Rosel-Pech C., Sánchez-Mendoza M. T., Salinas-Martínez V., Vadillo-Ortega F. An intervention to promote physical activity in Mexican elementary school students: building public policy to prevent noncommunicable diseases. Nutrition Reviews, 2017, vol. 75 (1), pp. 70–78. DOI:  
  33. Ruiz-Trasserra A., Pérez A., Continente X., O'Brien K., Bartroli M., Teixidó-Compaño E., Espelt A. Patterns of physical activity and associated factors among teenagers from Barcelona (Spain) in 2012. Gaceta Sanitaria, 2017, vol. 31, issue 6, pp. 485–491. DOI:
  34. Fairclough S. J., McGrane B., Sanders G., Taylor S., Owen M., Curry W.A non-equivalent group pilot trial of a school-based physical activity and fitness intervention for 10-11 year old English children: born to move. BMC Public Health, 2016, vol. 16, pp. 861. DOI:
  35. Wilkinson S., Penney D., Allin L. Setting and within-class ability grouping: A survey of practices in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 2016, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 336–354. DOI:
Date of the publication 30.06.2018