Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2018, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 155–166

The possibility of plastic rearrangements in the integrative activity of the brain in the regulation of the body position in space in children aged 5–15 years with learning disabilities after motor-rhythmic training

Efimova V. L. 1 (Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation), Nikolaeva E. I. 2 (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation), Ogorodnikova E. A. 3 (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation), Ryabchikova N. A. 4 (Moscow, Russian Federation)
1 Prognoz clinic
2 Herzen state pedagogical University
3 Pavlov Institute of Physiology Russian Academy of Sciences
4 Lomonosov Moscow State University

Introduction. It is believed that the causes of learning disabilities in children cannot be reduced solely to the imperfection of educational programs – there are biological and psychophysiological factors reducing the ability of children to learn. The article focuses on the development of integrative brain activity, regulating the ability to maintain dynamic balance in the performance of motor tasks, in students with learning disabilities. The aim of the study was to identify postural disorders in schoolchildren with learning disabilities, justify the need for special trainings aimed at improving the regulation of body position in space and assess their effectiveness.
Materials and Methods. The study involved 56 students (aged between 7 and 15 years; 40 boys, 16 girls). All subjects were diagnosed by a neurologist with SDFSS a specific learning disorders. The children were divided into experimental (26) and control (26 people) groups on a random basis. Tests and trainings were prescribed by a neurologist and were conducted with the written consent of the parents.
Evaluation of the dynamic balance of the subjects before and after the training was conducted using a digital posturography system. The survey report was generated automatically. After the evaluation, the children of both groups participated in 2-hour individual trainings for 14 days. The subjects from the experimental group took part in the training developed by the authors, including neurodynamic gymnastics; training based on biological feedback, developed by Interactive Metronome, USA; BOS-training Balance Master. Training of children belonging to the control group was conducted only with the help of the hardware and software complex Balance Master, the lesson lasted for 45 minutes.
Results. The obtained data confirm postural and rhythmic dysfunction in students with learning difficulties. The presented comprehensive training was more effective than trainings aimed at specific motor skill development.
Conclusions. The data show that, on the one hand, children with difficulties in school had problems in monitoring and regulating posture. On the other hand, targeted training has led to a significant improvement in the regulation of the body position in space in children aged both 5 and 15 years.

For citation:
Efimova V. L., Nikolaeva E. I., Ogorodnikova E. A., Ryabchikova N. A. The possibility of plastic rearrangements in the integrative activity of the brain in the regulation of the body position in space in children aged 5–15 years with learning disabilities after motor-rhythmic training. Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2018, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 155–166. DOI:
  1. Dellatolas G., Watier L., Le Normand M.-T., Lubart T., Chevrie-Muller C. Rhythm reproduction in kindergarten, reading performance at second grade, and developmental dyslexia theories. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2009, vol. 24, issue 6, pp. 555–563. DOI:
  2. Thomson J. M., Goswami U. Rhythmic processing in children with developmental dyslexia: auditory and motor rhythms link to reading and spelling. Journal of Physiology-Paris, 2008, vol. 102, no. 1-3, pp. 120–129. DOI:  
  3. Carr K. W., White-Schwoch T., Tierney A. T., Strait D. L., Kraus N. Beat synchronization predicts neural speech encoding and reading readiness in preschoolers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014, vol. 111, no. 40, pp. 14559–14564. DOI:  
  4. Shumway-Cook A., Horak F., Black F. O. A critical examination of vestibular function in motor-impaired learning-disabled children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 1987, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21–30. DOI:  
  5. Surányi Z., Csépe V., Richardson U., Thomson J. M., Honbolygó F., Goswami U. Sensitivity to rhythmic parameters in dyslexic children: a comparison of Hungarian and English. Reading & Writing, 2009, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 41–56. DOI:  
  6. Wolff P. H. Timing precision and rhythm in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 2002, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 179–206. DOI:  
  7. Sussman D., Leung R. C., Chakravarty M. M., Lerch J. P., Taylor M. J. The developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy. Brain and Behavior, 2016, vol. 6, issue 4, pp. e00457. DOI:
  8. Muneaux M., Ziegler J., Truc C., Thomson J., Goswami U. Deficits in beat perception and dyslexia: Evidence from French. NeuroReport, 2004, vol. 15, issue 8, pp. 1255–1259. DOI:
  9. Verbecque E., Vereeck L., Hallemans A. Postural sway in children: A literature review. Author links Open Overlay Panel, 2016, vol. 49, pp. 402–410. DOI:
  10. Mizusawa H., Jono Y., Iwata Y., Kinoshita A. Hiraoka K., Process of anticipatory postural adjustment and step movement of gait initiation. Human Movement Science, 2017, vol. 52, pp. 1–16. DOI:  
  11. Franco E. S., Panhoca I. Vestibular function in children underperforming at school. Revista Brasilera de Otorrinolaringologia, 2008, vol. 74, no. 6. DOI:  
  12. Efimova V. L., Nikolaev I. V., Zartor A. S. The use of posturographic assessment in organization of pedagogical help for children with learning disabilities. Sensory Systems, 2014, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 45–51. (In Russian) URL:  
  13. Hirabayashi S., Iwasaki Y. Developmental perspective of sensory organization on postural control. Brain & development, 1995, vol. 17, issue 2, pp. 111–113. DOI:
  14. Linardakis M., Trouli K., Chlapana E. Effects of a rhythm development intervention on the phonological awareness in early childhood. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research, 2014, vol. 78, pp. 49–53. DOI: URL:
  15. Rine R. M., Wienner-Vacher S. Evaluation and treatment of vestibular dysfunction in children. Neurorehabilitation, 2013, vol. 32 (3), pp. 507–518. DOI:
  16. Blair C., Raver C. C. School Readiness and Self-Regulation: A Developmental Psychobiological Approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 2015, vol. 66, pp. 711–731. DOI: 
  17. Bourelle S., Dey N., Sifaki-Pistolla D., Berge B., Gautheron V., Cottalorda J., Taiar R. Computerized static posturography and laterality in children. Influence of age. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 2017, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 129–139. URL:
  18. Westcott S. L., Crowe T. K., Deitz J. C., Richardson P. K. Test-retest reliability of the pediatric clinical test of sensory interaction for balance (P-CTSIB). Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 1994, Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–22. DOI:  
  19. David D., Wade‐Woolley L., Kirby J. R., Smithrim K. Rhythm and reading development in school-age children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Reading, 2007, vol. 30, issue 2, pp. 169–183. DOI:  
  20. Flaugnacco E., Lopez L., Terribili Ch., Zoia S., Buda S., Tilli S., Monasta L., Montico M., Sila A., Ronfani L., Schön D. Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2014, vol. 8, pp. 392. DOI: 
  21. Gordon R. L., Shivers C. M., Wieland E. A., Kotz S. A., Yoder P. J., McAuley J. D. Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children. Developmental Science, 2015, vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 635–644. DOI:  
  22. Bouwer F., Werner C., Knetelmann M., Honing H. Disentangling beat perception from sequential learning and examining the influence of attention and musical abilities on ERP responses to rhythm. Neuropsychologia, 2016, no. 85, pp. 80–90. DOI:
  23. Ozerov-Palchik O., Wolf M., Patel A. D. Relationships between early literacy and nonlinguistic rhythmic processes in kindergarteners. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2018, no. 167, pp. 354–368. DOI:
  24. Schön D., Tillmann B. Short- and long-term rhythmic interventions: perspectives for language rehabilitation. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 2015, vol. 1337, no. 1, pp. 32–39. DOI:
Date of the publication 30.06.2018