Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2016, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 7–23
UDC: 
81.374 + 81.374.82

Universal and active dictionaries: development lexicographic traditions or return to the roots

Bulygina E. Y. 1 (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation), Tripolskaya T. A. 1 (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation)
1 Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Abstract: 

The general idea of the active type dictionary was introduced by A. Rey and S. Delesalle: “a dictionary begins to live from the moment when it presents not only meaning of the words but their functioning” (1983).
The concept of Active dictionary was further developed in Russian studies. If A. Rey and S. Delesalle focused on pragmatic information in a dictionary entry, Russian lexicographers discuss the problem of the relation between linguistic and encyclopedic information in the dictionary, offering to "walk away" from the minimization of the classical dictionaries (Gak).
In the modern theoretical lexicography it is of importance to create a universal/active dictionary: the purpose of the dictionary, the recipient, the amount of lexicographic information, methods of presentation, sources and metalanguage (Apresyan). Recognizing all the problems associated with the new type of dictionary let`s focus on the issues of volume and the ratio of semantic and pragmatic information about the word in a bilingual active dictionary.
The main concept of the active bilingual lexicography is reflected in the French-Russian active type dictionary, which has a different purpose than active monolingual dictionaries and "aims to explicitly show the relations between language and speech: show the transition from a system of word meaning and its translation to typed contextual meanings and their translation, noting the diverse resources available to the target language to convey various meanings of the source language" (Gak, Triomphe).
The authors follow the cognitive-encyclopedic trend, and tend to include certain information not typical of a bilingual dictionary (such thematic groups as "soccer" and "chess" vocabulary, kinship terms, card games, etc.), or information on composition and functioning of causal verbs, the speech genres of Fear or Prohibition, as well as the ways of expressing Interrogation or Negation, etc. Such information that facilitates mastering the system and functional parameters of the language. In this case, we can speak about a different recipient of the dictionary – about the user who is mastering a foreign language. The user simultaneously receives knowledge of language and knowledge about language.
Pragmatic information (the emotional-evaluative, ethnic, cultural, ideological, gender, social, etc.) is not yet conceptually comprehended as an object of lexicographic description. The dictionary information is often incomplete, inconsistent and controversial.

Keywords: 

Lexicography, active dictionary, pragmatic component, semantics of the word

https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85017663158&origin=...

For citation:
Bulygina E. Y., Tripolskaya T. A. Universal and active dictionaries: development lexicographic traditions or return to the roots. Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 2016, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 7–23. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15293/2226-3365.1602.01
References: 
  1. Gak V. G., Triomphe J. Preface. French- Russian dictionary of the active type. Moscow, Russian Language Publ., 1998, pp. 5–7. (In Russian)
  2. Alain R., Delesalle S. Problèmes et conflits lexicographiques. Langue française. no. 43, 1979.
    Dictionnaire, sémantique et culture, sous la direction de Simone Delesalle et Alain Rey. pp. 4–26. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/lfr.1979.6160
  3. Alan R., Delesalle S. Problems and antinomy lexicography. Translated from the French I. Y. Dobrokhotova. New in foreign linguistics. vol. 14. Problems and methods of lexicography. (eds.) T. Zevachina, B. Gorodezsky. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1983, pp. 261–301. (In Russian)
  4. Gak V. G. The problem of creating a universal dictionary (encyclopedic, cultural-historical and ethno-linguistic aspects). National specificity of language and its reflection in the dictionary. (ed.) Yu. Karaulov.  Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988, pp. 119–125. (In Russian)
  5. 5. Morkovkin V. V. The anthropocentric versus lingvocentric approach to lexicographical description.  National specificity of language and its reflection in the dictionary. (ed.) Yu. Karaulov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988, pp. 131–136. (In Russian)
  6. 6. Apresyan Yu. D. Preface. New explanatory dictionary of synonyms Russian language. (ed.) Yu. D. Apresyan. Moscow, Slavic Culture Languages Publ., Vienna, Viennese Slavonic Almanac, 2004, pp. 8–11. (In Russian)
  7. Apresyan Yu. D. About active dictionary of the Russian language. Active Dictionary of Russian language. vol. 1. Moscow, Slavic Culture Languages Publ., 2014, pp. 5–32. (In Russian)
  8. The theoretical semantics and ideographic lexicography: the evolution of interpretations. Reports of the International scientific conference devoted to the 40th anniversary of education and research activities of the department of modern Russian language and Applied Linguistics of the Ural Federal University. October 23–24, 2014. Ekaterinburg, Russia. Moscow, Ekaterinburg, Kabinetnyi uchenyi Publ., 2014, 150 p. (In Russian)
  9. Szczerba L. V. The experience of the general theory of lexicography. Language system and speech activity. (eds.) L. .Zinder, M. Matusevich. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1974, pp. 265–304. (In Russian)
  10. Karaulov Yu. N. General and Russian ideography. Moscow, URSS Publ., 2014, 360 p.
  11. Shvedova N. Yu. Paradoxes of the entry. National specificity of language and its reflection in the dictionary. (ed.) Yu. Karaulov. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988, pp. 6–11. (In Russian)
  12. Apresyan Yu. D. «New explanatory dictionary of Russian synonyms»: the preface to the second edition. Slavic lexicography. International collective monograph. (ed.) M. Chernysheva. Moscow, Azbukovnik Publ., 2013, pp. 445–470.
  13. Sklyarevskaya G. N. About pragmatic information in the Dictionary: are pragmatic litters? Linguistic pragmatics in the dictionary: types of implementation and ways to describe. (ed.) G. Sklyarevskaya. St. Petersburg: Institute of Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 1997, pp. 6–13. (In Russian)
  14. Langacker R. An Interview with Ronald Langacker, by Jozsef Andor. In Acta Linguistica Hungarica.  Cognitive Grammar: The State of the Art and Related Issues. vol. 52 (4), 2005, р. 343.
  15. Sklyarevskaya G. N. Pragmatics and lexicography. Language – system. Language – text. Language – the ability. (eds.) Yu. Stepanov, E. Zemskaya, A. Moldovan. Moscow, Institute of Russian Language of the RAS Publ., 1995, pp. 6371. (In Russian)
  16. Apresyan Yu. D. Pragmatic information for explanatory dictionary. Apresyan Yu. Integral description of language and systematic lexicography. Selected works. vol. 2, Moscow, Russian Language Culture Publ., 1995, 766 p. (In Russian)
  17. Vendler Z. Illocutionary suicide. Translated by A. A. Zaliznyak. New in foreign linguistics, vol. 16. The linguistic pragmatics. (ed.) E. Paducheva Moscow, Progress Publ., 1985, pp. 228–250. (In Russian)
  18. Kozyrev V. A., Chernyak V. D. Russian lexicography. Moscow, DROFA Publ., 2004, 286 p. (In Russian)
  19. Lukyanova N. A. Typology of Russian language dictionaries. Vestnik NSU. History, Philology, 2005, vol. 4, pp. 20–45. (In Russian)
Date of the publication 10.04.2016